Digital Terrestrial Television

DTT is the backbone to free-to-air access and the most widely used means of receiving television globally

Commercially attractive

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Multiple business models

Broadcasters, audience and DTT operators can benefit from a variety of simple or mixed business models (Free to air, pay TV). Successful examples exist in Europe, with win-win mixed offers of free-to-air public service, free-to-air commercial service and pay-tv offers.

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Right capacity for attractive content

With the higher spectral efficiency offered by the latest modulation and coding schemes, it is possible to offer a variety of content and technical quality that is attractive to the Audience. Condition for success: An encouraging National Media Law, and a Reliable Audience measurement to evaluate take off and market share evolution.

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Cost savings

DTT delivers consistent operational costs reduction due to digital multiplexing capabilities, all the expenses are in fact shared with the other programs in the multiplex. In addition, for broadcasters who own the national terrestrial transmission network, income might be generated from hosting other programmes.

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Accessible premium content

DTT can offer premium content, like major sport events, at an accessible cost compared to satellite. Broadcasters will pay less due to coverage limited to national borders. Condition for success: A National Media Law supporting fair sports rights pricing and access.

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Employment

Extra local content can be provided thanks to the increased capacity with DTT and to a supportive DTT licensing regime. This content can be either produced by the Public Service Broadcasters or by local media providers. The National creative industry will benefit from support of Governments as it helps creating local jobs.

Good for the country

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National sovereignty

DTT relies on the terrestrial distribution network which is bound and operated in the country. This characteristic allows the preservation of national sovereignty compared to extra-nationally controlled satellite platforms.

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Content production

DTT enhances the creation of local content and local advertisement, it focuses on the national audience and it helps securing culture preservation and dissemination.

Technically sound

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Resilient

DTT is resilient to natural disaster, hacking attempts and weather conditions. For example satellite Ku Band, and even more Ka Band, signals are affected by heavy rainfalls, in some world regions, compromising the quality of service.

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Spectrum stability

DTT UHF spectrum is harmonised worldwide and benefits from certainty offered by WRC-15 and by the EU Decision on the future strategy for the UHF band. But pressure is still high (600 MHz in North America) and the subject will be open for discussion in WRC-23. A successful DTT platform is the best insurance against future attacks on spectrum.

Mature and experienced

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International cooperation

European broadcasters and DTT stakeholders have experience in DTT business and operation. Depending on the specific issues that other broadcasters are facing, support can be identified and provided. In addition, ITU is fulfilling a valuable role in supporting transition to digital in different regions.

EBU DTT Promotion and Monitoring

Although public broadcasters are available on pay-TV platforms such as satellite, cable and IPTV, Terrestrial Television (Analogue and DTT) remains the backbone to free-to-air TV access and the most widely used means of receiving television globally. Over 300 million households receive Analogue TV and nearly 200 million households receive DTT, of which around 120 million are in Europe. Despite its success, many countries around the world are yet to begin or complete the digital switchover process.

Given DTT’s unique social and economic opportunities, governments, broadcasters and other industry stakeholders should maximise their collaboration to accelerate the roll out of DTT.

To help promote the win-win scenario successful DTT offers, EBU, BNE and DVB have embarked on a process to share knowledge and bring DTT experts together to facilitate the introduction of successful DTT in countries still reliant on analogue TV.

 

Join us

If you are interested in DTT, contact us to participate in the discussions. Some restrictions may apply. 

The following table gathers all relevant publications on DTT issued by the EBU, ITU, ECC and CEPT. For offline consulation click here for the downladable version. 

Document number Title ITU/WP Approval date Domain Area Source
BT.1871-1 User requirements for wireless microphones 6A 17.06.2015 SAB System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1125-0 Basic objectives for the planning and implementation of digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems 6A 01.07.1994 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1299-1 The basic elements of a worldwide common family of systems for digital terrestrial television broadcasting 6A 01.03.2010 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.798-1 Digital terrestrial television broadcasting in the VHF/UHF bands 6A 01.07.1994 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1306-7 Error correction, data framing, modulation and emission methods for digital terrestrial television broadcasting 6A 17.06.2015 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1774-2 Use of satellite and terrestrial broadcast infrastructures for public warning, disaster mitigation and relief. Note - Identical to Rec. ITU-R BO.1774-1 6A 14.10.2015 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1877-1 Error-correction, data framing, modulation and emission methods for second generation of digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems 6A 01.08.2012 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.2016-1 Error-correction, data framing, modulation and emission methods for terrestrial multimedia broadcasting for mobile reception using handheld receivers in VHF/UHF bands 6A 22.01.2013 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.2072-0 Main functionalities of consumer receivers for worldwide broadcasting roaming 6A 04.02.2015 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1895-0 Protection criteria for terrestrial broadcasting systems. Note - Identical to Recommendation ITU-R BS.1895 6A 25.05.2011 DTV Protection ITU-R Recommendation
BT.419-3 Directivity and polarization discrimination of antennas in the reception of television broadcasting 6A 01.06.1990 DTV Planning ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1368-13 Planning criteria, including protection ratios, for digital terrestrial television services in the VHF/UHF bands 6A 01.06.2017 DTV Planning ITU-R Recommendation
BT.2033-1 Planning criteria, including protection ratios, for second generation of digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems in the VHF/UHF bands 6A 04.02.2015 DTV Planning ITU-R Recommendation
BT.2036-1 Characteristics of a reference receiving system for frequency planning of digital terrestrial television systems 6A 01.06.2016 DTV Planning ITU-R Recommendation
BT.2052-1 Planning criteria for terrestrial multimedia broadcasting for mobile reception using handheld receivers in VHF/UHF bands 6A 14.10.2015 DTV Planning ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1195-1 Transmitting antenna characteristics at VHF and UHF. Note - Identical to Rec. ITU-R BS.1195-1 6A 22.01.2013 DTV Engineering ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1206-3 Spectrum limit masks for digital terrestrial television broadcasting 6A 01.05.2016 DTV Engineering ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1893-1 Assessment methods of impairment caused to digital television reception by wind turbines 6A 14.10.2015 DTV Engineering ITU-R Recommendation
BT.1727-0 Terrestrial and satellite delivery of programme material to large screen digital imagery venues 6A (& 4B) 08.04.2005 DTV System ITU-R Recommendation
BT.2338-0 Services ancillary to broadcasting/services ancillary to programme making spectrum use in Region 1 and the implication of a co-primary allocation for the mobile service in the frequency band 694-790 MHz   6A 2014 SAB Field ITU-R Report
BT.2344-1 Information on technical parameters, operational characteristics and deployment scenarios of SAB/SAP as utilized in broadcasting   6A 2016 SAB Field ITU-R Report
BT.2295-1 Digital terrestrial broadcasting systems 6A 2015 DTV System ITU-R Report
BT.2139-0 Diversity reception of digital terrestrial television broadcasting signals 6A 2008 DTV R&D ITU-R Report
BT.2075-0 Protection requirements for terrestrial television broadcasting services in the 620‑790 MHz band against potential interference from GSO and non-GSO broadcasting-satellite systems and networks 6A 2006 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2247-3 Field measurement and analysis of compatibility between DTTB and IMT 6A 2015 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2265-1 Guidelines for the assessment of interference into the broadcasting service 6A 2014 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2296-0 Example of application of Recommendation ITU-R BT.1895 and Report ITU-R BT.2265 to assess interference to the broadcasting service caused by the impact of IMT systems on existing head amplifiers of collective television distribution systems 6A 2013 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2298-0 Reference model to be used for the assessment of interference into the television broadcasting service in order to take into account non-linearity in the television radiofrequency receiving system 6A 2014 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2337-0 Sharing and compatibility studies between digital terrestrial television broadcasting and terrestrial mobile broadband applications, including IMT, in the frequency band 470-694/698 MHz   6A 2014 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2339-0 Co-channel sharing and compatibility studies between digital terrestrial television broadcasting and international mobile telecommunication in the frequency band 694-790 MHz in the GE06 planning area   6A 2014 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2382-1 Description of interference into a DTT receiver 6A 2016 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2383-1 Characteristics of DTTB systems in the frequency band 470-862 MHz for frequency sharing/interference analyses 6A 2016 DTV Protection ITU-R Report
BT.2137-0 Coverage prediction methods and planning software for digital terrestrial television broadcasting (DTTB) networks 6A 2008 DTV Planning ITU-R Report
BT.2209-1 Calculation model for SFN reception and reference receiver characteristics of ISDB-T system 6A 2013 DTV Planning ITU-R Report
BT.2254-3 Frequency and network planning aspects of DVB-T2 6A 2017 DTV Planning ITU-R Report
BT.2248-0 A conceptual method for the representation of loss of broadcast coverage 6A 2011 DTV Planning ITU-R Report
BT.2140-9 Transition from analogue to digital terrestrial broadcasting 6A 2015 DTV Field ITU-R Report
BT.2343-2 Collection of field trials of UHDTV over DTT networks   6A 2016 DTV Field ITU-R Report
BT.2301-2 National field reports on the introduction of IMT in the bands with co-primary allocation to the broadcasting and the mobile services 6A 2016 DTV Field ITU-R Report
BT.2302-0 Spectrum requirements for terrestrial television broadcasting in the UHF frequency band in Region 1 and the Islamic Republic of Iran 6A 2014 DTV Field ITU-R Report
BT.2387-0 Spectrum / frequency requirements for bands allocated to broadcasting on a primary basis 6A 2015 DTV Field ITU-R Report
BT.2299-2 Broadcasting for public warning, disaster mitigation and relief 6A 2017 DTV Field ITU-R Report
BT.2035-2 Guidelines and techniques for the evaluation of digital terrestrial television broadcasting systems including assessment of their coverage areas 6A 2008 DTV Evaluation ITU-R Report
BT.2143-2 Boundary coverage assessment of digital terrestrial television broadcasting signals 6A 2010 DTV Evaluation ITU-R Report
BT.2215-6 Measurement of protection ratios and overload thresholds for broadcast TV receivers 6A 2016 DTV Evaluation ITU-R Report
BT.2252-3 Objective quality coverage assessment of digital terrestrial television broadcasting signals of Systems A and B 6A 2017 DTV Evaluation ITU-R Report
BT.482-1 Recommended characteristics for collective and individual antenna systems for domestic reception of signals from terrestrial transmitters 6A 1986 DTV Engineering ITU-R Report
BT.2138-0 Radiation pattern characteristics of UHF television receiving antennas 6A 2008 DTV Engineering ITU-R Report
BT.2253-0 GPS timing receivers for DVB-T SFN application: 10 MHz phase recovery 6A 2012 DTV Engineering ITU-R Report
BT.2294-0 Construction technique of DTTB relay station network for ISDB-T 6A 2013 DTV Engineering ITU-R Report
BT.2385-0 Reducing the environmental impact of terrestrial broadcasting systems 6A 2015 DTV Engineering ITU-R Report
BT.2386-0 Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting: Design and implementation of single frequency networks (SFN) 6A 2015 DTV Engineering ITU-R Report
BT.2142-2 The effect of the scattering of digital television signals from a wind turbine 6A 2015 DTV Engineering ITU-R Report
BT.2384-0 Implementation considerations for the introduction and transition to digital terrestrial sound and multimedia broadcasting  6A 2015 DTV - DSB Planning ITU-R Report
BT.2053-2 Large screen digital imagery 6A/B/C 2009 DTV System ITU-R Report
R-HDB-39 DTTB Handbook - Digital terrestrial television broadcasting in the VHF/UHF bands 6A 2012 DTV Planning and implementation ITU-R Handbook
R-HDB-63 Handbook on Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting networks and systems implementation 6A 2016 DTV Planning and implementation ITU-R Handbook
EBU Tech 3344 Guidelines for distribution and reproduction in accordance with R 128 N/A 25 Jul 2016 DTV, DSB QoS EBU
EBU Tech 3343 Practical guidelines for EBU R128 (Loudness) N/A 25.01.2016 DTV, DSB QoS EBU
EBU Tech 3342 Loudness range: A measure to supplement EBU R 128 loudness normalisation N/A 25.01.2016 DTV, DSB QoS EBU
EBU Tech 3341 EBU Mode' metering to supplement EBU R 128 loudness normalisation N/A 25.01.2016 DTV, DSB QoS EBU
EBU Tech 3348 Frequency & Network Planning Aspects of DVB T2 N/A 29.10.2014 DTV Planning EBU
EBU Tech 3335 Measurements of TV cameras for Characterising & Setting N/A 19 Aug 2014 DTV Production EBU
EBU Tech 3359 Media Storage Demands N/A 18 Jun 2014 DTV, DSB Production EBU
EBU Tech 3362 Media Storage; Design & Benchmarking N/A 27 Aug 2013 DTV, DSB Production EBU
EBU Tech 3338 Requirements for HBB TV Systems & Services N/A 14.10.2010 DTV Distribution EBU
EBU Tech 3299 High Definition (HD) Image Formats for Television Production N/A 22.01.2010 DTV Production EBU
Tech Report 038 Subjective evaluation of HLG for HDR and SDR distribution N/A 30.03.2017 DTV Production EBU
Tech Report 037 Video System Requirements for UHDTV and an Advanced 1080p TV Format N/A 06 Jul 2016 DTV Production EBU
Tech Report 036 HEVC coded (U)HDTV in DVB-T2 N/A 18.03.2016 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Report 035 An Introduction To Time-Frequency Slicing N/A 03.03.2016 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Report 034 Simulation parameters for theoretical LTE eMBMS Network Studies N/A 22 Dec 2015 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Report 028 EBU Policy Statement on UHDTV N/A 21 Jul 2015 DTV Production EBU
Tech Report 031 Sustainable production - Practical Steps to Implementation N/A 20.11.2014 DTV - DSB Production EBU
Tech Report 029 DVB-T2 SFN Spectrum Efficiency N/A 17.11.2014 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Report 027 Delivery of Broadcast Content over LTE Networks N/A 31 Jul 2014 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Report 024 Planning and Implementation for T-DAB and DVB-T N/A 18.10.2013 DTV - DSB Distribution EBU
Tech Report 022 Terrestrial Digital Television Planning Considerations N/A 18.10.2013 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Report 016 Benefits and Limitations of SFNs for DTT N/A 10.10.2012 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Review 2017 Cost-benefit analysis of FM, DAB, DAB+ and broadband for radio broadcasters and listeners N/A 31 Jul 2017 DSB Distribution EBU
Tech Review 2017 DAB+ Signal Propagation in Tunnels N/A 10.03.2017 DSB Engineering EBU
Tech Review 2017 WiB - A New System Concept for DTT N/A 06.03.2017 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Review 2015 TLCI-2012 News N/A 24 Feb 2015 DTV Production EBU
Tech Review 2014 TV Distribution via Cellular Networks Part 2: Costs N/A 21 May 2014 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Review 2014 TV Distribution via Cellular Networks Part 1: Spectrum N/A 21 May 2014 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Review 2014 Crystal ball, tea leaves or maths - forecasting data traffic for IMT N/A 25.03.2014 DTV Spectrum EBU
Tech Review 2013 DTT Quo Vadis - Germany as a case study N/A 15.03.2013 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Review 2013 The future role of Broadcasting N/A 28.01.2013 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Review 2012 Loudness - don't forget the distribution chain! N/A 24.09.2012 DTV QoS EBU
Tech Review 2012 DAB Norway - Implementation of loudness normalization N/A 22.03.2012 DSB QoS EBU
Tech Review abbreviations EBU Technical Review abbreviations N/A 09.01.2012 - - EBU
Tech Review 2011 How can mobile and broadcasting networks use adjacent bands? N/A 26.01.2011 DTV Sharing EBU
Tech Review 2010 On the way to Loudness Nirvana - with EBU R 128 N/A 06.09.2010 DTV QoS EBU
Tech Review 2010 HbbTV— a hybrid broadcast-broadband system for the living room N/A 01.03.2010 DTV Distribution EBU
EBU Fact Sheet Relevance of FTA distribution for PSM N/A 26.10.2017 DTV - DSB Distribution EBU
EBU Fact Sheet PSM Requirements in Distribution N/A 02.10.2017 DTV - DSB Distribution EBU
Tech Fact Sheet Video Monitors N/A 29.09.2017 DTV Production EBU
Tech Fact Sheet Quality Control (QC) N/A 26.09.2017 DTV - DSB QoS EBU
Tech Fact Sheet SFN myths and Realities N/A 01.09.2017 DTV - DSB Distribution EBU
Tech Fact Sheet PPDR in adjacent bands to DTT N/A 06.03.2017 DTV Sharing EBU
Tech Fact Sheet Loudness N/A 26.01.2016 DTV QoS EBU
Tech Fact Sheet WRC-15 results N/A 08.12.2015 DTV Spectrum EBU
Tech Fact Sheet Quality Control N/A 01.09.2015 DTV - DSB QoS EBU
EBU Fact Sheet Can LTE share spectrum with DTT? N/A 24 Aug 2015 DTV Spectrum EBU
EBU Fact Sheet Protection of DTT from LTE 700 N/A 26 Feb 2015 DTV Sharing EBU
EBU Fact Sheet PSM Requirements in Distribution N/A 19 Dec 2014 DTV - DSB Distribution EBU
Tech Fact Sheet EBU UHD test material N/A 22.09.2014 DTV Production EBU
Tech Fact Sheet White Space Devices N/A 22.09.2014 DTV Sharing EBU
Tech Fact Sheet Use of Band III N/A 22.09.2014 DTV - DSB Spectrum EBU
Tech Fact Sheet High Efficiency Lighting N/A 19.09.2014 DTV Production EBU
Tech Fact Sheet Media Delivery Strategies N/A 17.09.2014 DTV - DSB Distribution EBU
Tech Fact Sheet TV Distribution Platforms N/A 17.09.2014 DTV Distribution EBU
Tech Fact Sheet LED Lighting Interference - Good Installation Practice N/A 28 May 2014 - Protection EBU
CEPT Report 060 Harmonised technical conditions for the 694 -790 MHz band N/A 02.03.2016 - Sharing CEPT
CEPT Report 053 Harmonised technical conditions for the 694 -790 MHz band N/A 28.11.2014 - Sharing CEPT
CEPT Report 032 Continuation of PMSE operating in the UHF, including the assessment of the advantage of an EU approach N/A 30.10.2009 PMSE Spectrum CEPT
CEPT Report 031 Frequency (channelling) arrangements for the 790-862 MHz band". (Task 2 of the 2nd Mandate to CEPT on the digital dividend) N/A 30.10.2009 - Sharing CEPT
CEPT Report 030 The identification of common and minimal (least restrictive) technical conditions for 790 - 862 MHz for the digital dividend in the European Union N/A 30.10.2009 - Sharing CEPT
ECC Report 240 Studies for BB PPDR and other applications in 410-430 and 450-470 MHz and adjacent bands N/A 30.09.2015 DTV Sharing ECC
ECC Report 239 Studies for BB PPDR systems in the 700 MHz range N/A 30.09.2015 DTV Sharing ECC
ECC Report 236 Guidance for national implementation of a regulatory framework for TV WSD using geo-location database N/A 27.05.2015 DTV Sharing ECC
ECC Report 224 Long Term Vision for the UHF broadcasting band N/A 28.11.2014 DTV Spectrum ECC
ECC Report 221 Adjacent band compatibility between MFCN and PMSE audio applications in the 700 MHz frequency band N/A 18.09.2014 - Sharing ECC
ECC Report 186 Technical and operational requirements for WSD under geo-location approach N/A 29.01.2013 DTV Sharing ECC
ECC Report 185 Definition of technical and operational requirements for WSD in 470-790 MHz N/A 29.01.2013 DTV Sharing ECC
ECC Report 159 Cognitive radio systems in the 'white spaces' in 470-790 MHz N/A 03.02.2011 DTV Sharing ECC
ECC Report 116 Converting GE06 DVB-T allotments/assignments in Band III into T-DAB allotments/assignments N/A 25.02.2008 DTV Spectrum ECC

EBU Members can download the DTT Implementation Status database (.xlsx file, updated 30.10.2018), used to generate the tables and charts below. Several additional tables and charts are available within the database

An updated version of the table is published every 1-2 months.

DTT Implementation Overview

DTT is the main distribution platform for TV content with ever-growing number of countries launching services.

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Analogue switch-off (ASO) has been completed in 33% of the world's countries, which together are home to almost 22% of the world's population; an additional 20% of countries have set a date for ASO. In 47% of countries there is no formal date for ASO; those countires account for 30.3% of the world's population. (Note that at the time of writing, there is no official date for ASO in India – naturally this has a big impact on the latter figure.)

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2020 is the target date for ASO for many countries.

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The DVB family of standards are predominant globally; in particular DVB-T2 has emerged as the reference technology for DTT.

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DTT coverage is also growing globally, with more than 92.5% of the population covered in half of the countries for which data is currently available. The top 25% of those countries cover more than 98.13% of their respective population.

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The number of national multiplexes varies from country to country. While the FTA model is by far the most commonly accepted, with a combination of public and commercial channels, PayDTT has seen success in many countries often, but not always, alongside a FTA service..

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WRC-15 Results

The EBU is pleased to report that Region 1, most of Region 3 and South American countries in Region 2 have secured spectrum to facilitate investments that will stabilize Digital Terrestrial Television (DTT) well into the 2020s. A small number of countries in North America (Canada, USA, Mexico, Colombia, and some Caribbean islands), Asia (Bangladesh) and Oceania (New Zealand, and some Pacific Islands) have allocated a portion (614 – 698 MHz), or the whole (470 – 698 MHz) of the UHF band to mobile broadband.  Read our WRC-15 Results Fact Sheet to find out more.

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