Loudness normalisation and permitted maximum level of audio signals

EBU R 128

Recommendation to use an average programme loudness of -23 LUFS and the 'Loudness Range' and 'Maximum True Peak Level' descriptors. Version 5.0 (November 2023).

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In this new version a reference is added to supplement s4 (loudness for Cinematic content). A Document History and Acknowledgement sections have been added.

Keywords: Audio levels, loudness, normalisation, permitted maximum level

More on loudness.


The following translations of this document are available. Please note the translations may not be based on the latest version; see the year mentioned in brackets. These translations are courtesy of the translaters and hosted by the EBU 'as is'. The official and definitive version is the EBU English version.

German version of EBU R 128 [2011] - Thanks to Mr G. Spikofski (IRT) and Mr. F. Camerer (ORF).

Italian version of EBU R 128 [2011] - Credits: Mr Alessandro Travaglini (Fox).

Romanian version of EBU R 128 [2011] - Thanks to EBU Member ROR.

Russian version of EBU R 128 [2014] - Special thanks to EBU Member RTR.

Slovenian version of EBU R 128 [2011] - Thanks ot RTVSlo for this version.

Spanish version of EBU R 128 [2011] - Thanks to Mr Nacho Legorburo (SETSI).

All versions of this publication

Version   Date   Short description
5.0   2023, November   Ref. to R128s4 added
4.0   2020, August   Tolerances updates and refs to R128s1 and s2 added
3.0   2014, June   Target level (-23 LUFS) tolerances restricted to +/- 0.5 LU.
2.0   2011, August   Relative gate changed from -8 to -10 LU.
1.0   2010   First version