In August 2010, the EBU published the first version of its Loudness Recommendation EBU R128 (now in version 3.0). It tells how broadcasters can measure and normalise audio using Loudness meters instead of Peak Meters (PPMs) only, as has been common practice.
The switch from audio peak-normalization to loudness normalization is probably the biggest revolution in professional audio of the last decades. It is important for broadcasters to be aware of the loudness paradigm and how to adopt their systems and working practices accordingly.
Basically EBU R 128 recommends to normalize audio at -23 LUFS ±0.5 LU (±1 LU for live programmes), measured with a relative gate at -10 LU. The metering approach can be used with virtually all material. To make sure meters from different manufacturers provide the same reading, EBU Tech 3341 specifies the 'EBU Mode', which includes a Momentary (400 ms), Short term (3s) and Integrated (from start to stop) meter. Many vendors support 'EBU Mode' in their products.
EBU R 128 is the result of several years of intense work by the audio experts in the EBU PLOUD Group, led by Florian Camerer (ORF). The Recommendation is accompanied by specific guidance for short-form content (EBU R 128s1), a Loudness Metering specification (EBU Tech 3341), a Loudness Range descriptor (EBU Tech 3342), Production Guidelines (EBU Tech 3343) and Distribution & Reproduction Guidelines (EBU Tech 3344). An EBU Technical Review Article describing the fundamental change in audio in broadcasting is available: On the way to Loudness Nirvana, as is an article on distribution aspects: Loudness in Distribution.
The EBU Loudness test set v5.0 offers various sequences to test loudness meters for (minimal) compliance. It also includes a pink noise signal to help set a correct reference listening level as per EBU Tech 3343 (paragraph 8.2). The reference listening level signal is available as a separate download as well: 500-2000 Hz monophonic pink noise @ -23 LUFS.
EBU Project Group on Loudness (PLOUD)
The topic of Loudness (PLOUD) is part of the EBU's Strategic Programme on Future Audio Formats and Renderers.
The PLOUD group:
- Created the popular EBU R 128 Loudness Recommendation, making sure there is a common, vendor-independent and relatively simple way to measure loudness.
- Helps Members to understand the new loudness metering and levelling.
- Provides detailed practical guidelines to help audio professionals make the switch from peak to loudness.
If you are interested in Loudness (PLOUD), join our group on this topic and participate in the discussions. Due to the massive interest in this topic, group participation in principle is limited to broadcasters and equipment manufacturers. Other organizations (e.g. post houses) are encouraged to contact the national broadcaster they are delivering to for loudness guidance in their country.
EBU Technology & Innovation Workplan
Every two years, the EBU develops a roadmap for technology and innovation activities based on the requirements and inputs given by EBU Members. The result of this roadmap is our bi-annual EBU Technology & Innovation Workplan. Strategic programmes and project groups are set up to focus on specific areas of interest. To access the latest Workplan, click here.
We are aware of the following 79 parties supporting EBU R 128 in products/tools.*
If you are a vendor supporting EBU R 128 in your product(s) and would like to be added, send us an e-mail via: email@example.com
Likewise, if you spot an error in the list, please let us know via firstname.lastname@example.org too.
* Disclaimer Above list of parties providing EBU R 128 products/tools is based on information provided by these organisations themselves, such as publicly available product specifications. Please note that the EBU does NOT verify conformance of the implementations. Inclusion in the list also does NOT mean the EBU recommends the party or its product(s)/tool(s). Users should verify the suitability of any product/tool themselves.
What exactly does the abbreviation PLOUD stand for?
This abbreviation is based on the EBU TECHNICAL working structure at the time of creation of the PLOUD Group. The P originally referred to "Production", as the Group was managed by the Production Management Committee. The LOUD part should be obvious :) Back then the exact spelling was P/LOUD. After a reorganisation of the EBU's work, the slashes were dropped, but for PLOUD the P was kept - as the name was so well-known already. You could regard it to stand for "Project", or as some have proposed, for "Practical", because the Group has a strong focus on providing solutions for practical use.
You recommend a target level of -23 LUFS. How does it relate to -24 LKFS?
It is closer than you may think. The EBU recommends to normalise audio according to EBU R 128, which specifies a target level of -23 LUFS. In the USA the ATSC recommends -24 LKFS. Besides this 1 'dB' difference and the use of LKFS instead of LUFS (which is only a difference in naming), the idea is quite similar. But only comparing the target levels is not the full story, as the specs also differ in the tolerances and the maximum True Peak Levels which are allowed. One could argue the EBU spec allows for a more predictable approach, as it has a smaller tolerance window.
What is the difference between LUFS and LU?
LUFS is the unit that is used to express loudness levels on an absolute scale, while LU is the unit for differences between loudness levels, in other words, loudness levels on a relative scale. So, a programme that has a loudness level of -23 LUFS is 2 LU quieter than a programme that has a loudness level -21 LUFS. LU can also be used as the units for loudness levels relative to the target level. It was anticipated that common usage would be, "You are 2 LU low," rather than "You are at -25 LUFS."
If you are familiar with the decibel (dB) as a unit, you will know that a dB is an expression of the ratio of two levels - the level to be described, and a reference level. The postfix to the dB tells you the reference level, for example, dBm is referenced to 1 milliwatt, dBu to 0.775Vrms. LUFS is a measurement on a decibel scale and is relative to the loudness level of stereo (front left and front right) 1kHz tone peaking at 0dBFS.
I like compressed sounds. Can I still use dynamic compression?
Yes, as much as you like, but it won't make you sound much louder. The more you compress, the lower the fader will have to be to reach the same Loudness target level (-23 LUFS). So you can use dynamic compression, but not misuse it to gain loudness.
Do you encourage the use of a lot of dynamic compression?
No. We believe dynamic compression is used too much in current practice, reducing the quality of productions. The good news is that by using loudness normalisation, audio engineers who compress less are not 'punished' by losing loudness. So it encourages the artistic use of the available dynamic range, without pre-describing the amount of dynamic compression that can be used.
Are there tools to measure the loudness range of my signal?
Is the integrated loudness measurement known before the end of the measurement?
No. The final integrated loudness level can only be exactly known *after* the integrated measurement has ended, as it depends on all audio blocks between 'start' and 'stop' having been measured in an internal, ungated measurement first (to be able to determine which blocks are to be gated out by the relative gate).
Does this mean the relative gate cannot be used for live measurements?
You can still use an integrated meter to measure live programmes. The meter simply has to take into account the whole programme, from when you started measuring up to the present time. Basically the relative gate goes 'up and down' with the signal as the programme gets closer to the end, and audio blocks are excluded depending on its current value. Note however that no audio blocks are discarded until the final integrated loudness measurement has been done (as the final relative gate level will only be known at that point in time).
Should the relative gate threshold be -8 LU or -10 LU?
- 10 LU. Originally the EBU had specified -8 LU, but since August 2011, the gate is at -10 LU. This means the EBU and the ITU specification are using the same relative gating threshold.
Should the International Sound (IS) be at -23 LUFS too?
Yes. There are no specific rules provided for IS (without voice-over!), such as is for example provided with soccer matches (audience + pitch sounds only). Various audio mixers in the PLOUD Group have argued that the normal rules should indeed apply to IS too, as this makes for a simpler workflow and more predictable results.
I see people claim R 128 compliance and EBU mode compliance. What's the difference?
Compliance with EBU R 128 means working with a target loudness of -23 LUFS, a maximum true peak level less than -1 dBTP, and using loudness range as a guide. So, a programme can be compliant, or a loudness process, used to normalize programmes to meet the target level and treu peak requirements, could be compliant.
EBU mode specifies integration times and scales for a meter based on ITU-R BS.1770-4. A meter can claim to be EBU mode if it offers the 3 integration times of 400ms, 3s, and "start to stop" integrated, and uses one of the permitted absolute or relative +9 or +18 scales defined in EBU Tech 3341, and measures loudness range as defined in EBU Tech 3342.
Does EBU R 128 also apply to radio?
The EBU's loudness work is not limited to television alone, although it is fair to say that most focus has been on the implemenation of EBU R 128 for television. You can find specific information on the use of EBU R 128 for radio in EBU Tech 3344.
Some EBU Members have already started to introduce loudness normalisation (using EBU R128) to radio production and/or broadcasting. In Norway for example the DAB/DAB+ network is loudness normalised since early February 2012:
- Brief explanation by Bjørn Aarseth (NRK)
- Audio example BEFORE EBU R 128
- Audio example AFTER EBU R 128
- DAB in Norway
If you are a radio broadcaster or equipment manufacturer, please join the PLOUD Group if you want to participate in this work sharing your experiences, ideas, concerns, etc.
If you have any further questions on EBU R 128 or related topics, which are not listed above, or if you intend to implement EBU R 128 Loudness normalisation in your distribution chain, then please send us an e-mail via: email@example.com.
The document presents practical guidelines to relevant settings and processing in the signal chain from the studio to consumer equipment. It aims to achieve consistent loudness levels throughout the complete chain from broadcaster to consumer. This is version 2.1, July 2016; editorial changes only (pagination, typos and fonts).
EBU tech-i magazine, issue 27 includes articles on Virtual Reality, Cross-Media Production, UHD, Loudness, and much more...
This supplement to EBU R 128 specifies a special set of loudness parameters for short-form content. This version 2.0 puts emphasis on the permitted Maximum Short-term loudness and does no longer include the use of the Max. Momentary Loudness limit.
In this document the properties of a loudness meter in the so-called ‘EBU Mode’ are introduced and explained in detail. This version 3.0 includes new minimum requirement test signals, clarifications and a new requirement on LRA stability signalling. This set of test signals complements the document.
The ‘Loudness Range’ (LRA) measure and the algorithm for its computation is introduced and explained in detail. Loudness Range is supplementary to the main audio Programme Loudness described in EBU R 128. This is version 3.0.
The document describes how to change audio levelling from peak normalisation to loudness normalisation in accordance with EBU R128. This version 3.0 is a completely updated version based on 5 years of experiences in the use of loudness normalization.
EBU tech-i magazine, issue 26 welcomes you to the LiveIP Project, shows the latest on Automated Signing Production, and more...
EBU tech-i magazine, Issue 25 tells you all about personalisation, why broadcasters should go IP, and how subtitles go live. And that's not all...
EBU tech-i magazine, issue 22 explains why Video did NOT kill radio and what the future of radio will be like. And there is more, including Cross-Platform Authentication and a look at the state of loudness normalisation in Europe.
Issue 20 of tech-i includes news on newsrooms, addresses the question if FTA TV is dead, takes a look at MPEG MMT, provides a profile of the new EBU TC chairman Egon Verharen (NPO) and features two articles explaining what UHDTV will offer. And there is more...
Recommendation to use an average programme loudness of -23 LUFS and the 'Loudness Range' and 'Maximum True Peak Level' descriptors. Version 3.0 (June 2014).
EBU Recommendation 128 is a milestone in the history of audio broadcasting. It started a loudness revolution by specifying normalized loudness levels in production, in play-out systems and, potentially, in many other applications. This article explains how distributors could support the good broadcasters while improving consumer satisfaction at the same time.
This article describes the success of the implemention of loudness normalization on DAB broadcasts in Norway with a few words on other radio platforms. Thus far, loudness awareness has been almost exclusive to television. Could loudness normalization also be employed in radio? And if yes, what radio platforms could benefit from it? Find out by reading this article.
The March 2012 issue of tech-i covers TV White Spaces, LED lights, colorimetry and storage. You'll also find three radio-related articles, from FM swtich-off plans in Norway, to Loudness considerations and a strategic view from Lieven Vermaele. Finally, RTR's Igor Orlov is "in the spotlight" and David Wood asks how much R&D should be done by broadcasters.
The EBU R 128 logo is the symbol of the EBU Recommendation R 128 on Loudness normalisation and permitted maximum level of audio signals. Use of the logo by third parties is allowed subject to the rules in this document.
This is version 2 of the Broadcast Wave Format (BWF) specification. This is a substantial revision that incorporates Loudness Metadata (in accordance with EBU R 128) and which takes account of the publication of Supplements 1 – 6 and other relevant documentation.
A zip file with the official EBU R 128 logo in various graphical format. The logo can be used by product manufacturers to signal their loudness products are 'EBU Mode' compliant. These rules of use apply.
This article describes one of the most fundamental changes in the history of audio in broadcasting: the change of the levelling paradigm from peak normalisation to loudness normalisation. This change is vital to address a major source of irritation for television and radio audiences.
This is the third issue of tech-i, the EBU TECHNICAL department quarterly magazine which include the following articles such as: the New EBU Technical structure, loudness awareness, eco displays, tapeless environments, CES report, HIPs, seminar news & diary.
A loudness war is taking place from CD mastering to broadcasting. The purpose of this article is to justify and recommend more fitting ways of measuring and controlling the audio level in digital broadcasting than looking at isolated samples or quasi-peak levels.
This article on Loudness control – while representing the views of the author – is based on a discussion paper submitted to the 5th Meeting of EBU Project Group P/AGA (Advisory Group on Audio), held at BBC R&D in December 2003.
This article presents some solutions for avoiding loudness differences in radio and television broadcasting, based on levelling recommendations and a newly-developed loudness algorithm.
In this short article, the author describes some of the difficulties encountered with setting audio levels and loudness in the new digital environment.
Dolby Dialogue Normalization and Dynamic Range Control – are described here with particular reference to digital TV.
In DAB a dynamic range control (DRC) signal mayb be used to effect unobtrusive compression of the programme dynamics, if required. A music/speech control (MSC) signal, which is also transmitted, will enable the listener to balance the loudness of different types of programme according to taste.
EBU R 128 and related documents have been translated in several languages. These translations are courtesy of the translaters and hosted by the EBU 'as is'. Please note the translations may not be based on the latest versions of the EBU Loudness specifications; see the year mentioned in brackets.
Thanks to Mr G. Spikofski (IRT) and Mr. F. Camerer (ORF) for offering the following German translation:
EBU's member Polish Radio has kindly offered the following translations into Polish:
Thanks to EBU Member ROR for providing this Romanian version of R 128:
With special thanks to our Member RTR we offer the following Russian translations:
Thanks to RTVSLo for offering the following translation:
Thanks to Mr Nacho Legorburo (SETSI) the following Spanish translations are available: